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美国退出《中导条约》是错误的决定(中英对照)

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On 5 May 2019, the Financial Times published an article by Ambassador Liu Xiaoming entitled "The US's wrong-headed decision to pull out of the nuclear arms treaty". The full text is as follows:

2019年5月5日,英国主流大报《金融时报》刊登驻英国大使刘晓明署名文章《美国退出<中导条约>是错误的决定》。全文如下:
The US's Wrong-headed Decision to Pull Out of the Nuclear Arms Treaty
美国退出《中导条约》是错误的决定
Back when the US and the Soviet Union were negotiating what would become the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty, I was a student at Tufts University's Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
上世纪80年代,我在美国塔夫茨大学弗莱彻法律外交学院留学之时,美苏正就后来于1987年签署的《中导条约》展开激烈谈判。
As a researcher in Cold War geopolitical strategies and arms control during the height of the Cold War, I found the heated talks fascinating: this became the focus of my research. I argued in my thesis that if the treaty was concluded and observed, it could become a cornerstone for lasting peace in the world. My professor at Fletcher spoke highly of my dissertation and gave it an "A".
作为一名在冷战“高潮”时期研究地缘战略和军备控制问题的学者,我对美苏激烈谈判产生浓厚兴趣,把它作为研究课题,并在论文中指出,该条约如果达成并得到切实遵守,将成为构筑世界持久和平的基石。我的论文得到弗莱彻学院教授的高度评价,并获得了“A”的好成绩。
Since then, my conclusion has been proved right. The INF treaty, signed at the end of 1987, has played a positive role in maintaining relative peace in the world. Unfortunately, both the US and Russia recently announced their withdrawal from the treaty. The US even cited "China's intermediate-range missiles" as one of its excuses, along with alleged Russian cheating. Such an effort to blame China is groundless and unacceptable.
此后的历史演进证明,我的结论是正确的。《中导条约》自1987年底签署以来,为维持全球相对和平发挥了积极作用。然而近期,美俄相继宣布退出《中导条约》,美方除了指责俄罗斯未能履约外,还把矛头指向中国,声称中国发展中导。这种无端指责毫无道理,也令人无法接受。
The INF treaty is, in nature, bilateral rather than multilateral. It was a deal between the world's two largest military powers to avoid an endless arms race. It has resulted in the destruction of 2,692 missiles, played an important role in easing tensions between major countries, safeguarding regional and world peace, and maintaining strategic balance and stability. Even now, the US and Russia still hold about 92 per cent of the world's 14,500 nuclear warheads. These two countries should continue to shoulder the major responsibility for arms control and disarmament.
首先,《中导条约》的本质是“双边”,而不是“多边”。《中导条约》是美俄之间的双边文件,是两大军事强国为避免无休止的军备竞赛达成的妥协。在条约规定期限内,美俄共计销毁了2692枚中导,为缓和大国关系、增进国际与地区和平、维护全球战略平衡与稳定发挥了重要作用。时至今日,美俄仍是世界上拥有核武数量最多的国家,核弹头数量相加约占全世界14500枚核弹头总量的92%,两国仍对全球军控和裁军事业负有主要责任。
China is committed to peaceful development and exercises the utmost restraint in developing strategic forces. All of its land-based short- and intermediate-range missiles are deployed within its borders. If the US is right when it claims that more than 90 per cent of China's nuclear missiles have a range between 1,000 and 5,500 kilometres and would be covered by the treaty if it were a party to it, these are absolutely no threat to America, which is nearly 10,000 kilometres away from China. China's nuclear capability is limited and only meets the minimum needs of China's national security. Furthermore, China, unlike the US, is publicly committed to no-first-use of nuclear weapons.
第二,中国始终不渝走和平发展道路,在战略力量发展上保持极为克制的态度。因此,中国所有陆基中短程导弹全部部署在境内。美方反复声称,中国核力量90%以上是射程1000至5500公里的中导。中美位于太平洋两端,相距近1万公里。即便美方所言属实,也恰恰说明中国绝大部分核打击力量对美国完全构不成威胁。中国保持有限的核力量完全是为了威慑。与美国不同的是,中国至今仍是核大国中唯一承诺不首先使用核武器的国家。
Although the US complains about other countries, its real goal appears to be breaking free from the INF treaty and its prohibitions on arms expansion. What will happen in a world without the INF treaty? The US does not seem to be planning to deploy intermediate-range missiles on its own territory. The more likely scenario would be forward deployment to maintain an American military presence around the globe. In these circumstances, limits or prohibitions that focus only on land-based short- and intermediate-range missiles fall short of the universally-accepted arms control principle of "undiminished security for all".
第三,美国在中导问题上抱怨他国,真实目的是挣脱自身束缚,推行扩张性军事战略。《中导条约》如被废弃,世界将走向何方?美国似乎不会在其本土部署中导,而是更有可能进行“前沿部署”,维系全球军事存在。在此背景下,单纯限制或禁止陆基中、短程导弹不符合“各国安全不受减损”这一国际公认的军控基本原则。
Rather than being abandoned, the INF treaty should be strengthened. The likely redevelopment and redeployment of missiles would undermine strategic stability across the world, trigger regional tension and hamper the global cause of arms control and disarmament. So, in the interest of upholding the international system of arms control treaties and maintaining regional and world security, the top priority should be to rescue the INF treaty and make sure it is observed by both Russia and the US, rather than making it multilateral and including other countries.
《中导条约》不应废弃而应加强。如果美俄双方重新研发部署中导,势将影响全球战略稳定,引发地区紧张局势,也将对国际军控与裁军进程产生严重消极影响。因此,当务之急是努力挽救、切实遵守条约,而不是推动所谓条约“多边化”,把许多无关国家拉进来。这不仅无助于维护国际军控条约体系,也不利于维护地区和全球安全。
Peace is like air and sunshine, whose presence is easily taken for granted but whose absence is life-threatening. The INF treaty is a milestone in international arms control and disarmament. There can be no going back. Russia and the US should strive to address their differences properly through constructive dialogue, observe the treaty and continue to be a positive force in maintaining world peace.
和平犹如空气和阳光,受益而不觉,失之则难存。《中导条约》是国际军控和裁军进程中的“里程碑”,是一条没有回头路的“单行道”。我们敦促美俄双方通过建设性对话,妥善解决分歧,尽快恢复遵约,为世界和平贡献“正能量”。

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